When it comes to picking a marketing strategy, many different frameworks can be used to develop our customer acquisition strategy. Among the different theories available we particularly favour Jobs to Be Done Theory, and in this post, we are going to discuss why.
Spoiler alert: among the many beautiful thing Jobs to Be Done Theory can do for your business, it highlights some of the shortcomings of Personas Theory, pointing out the missing link of causality in your typical “personas story”. Here’s a breakdown of the post’s content.
Personas is a marketing approach which focuses on profiling your ideal customers with both demographic and psychographic features. In the early 80s, this approach was promising, as it assisted marketers to focus on the customer rather than the product.
Hardliners of this approach would create personas (or person-types) imagining their fully-rounded lives, and making them as ‘real’ as possible.
Creating these imaginary personas would then assist marketers in thinking about their marketing mix while bearing in mind the final users.
In recent years, however, this approach has been criticised extensively. Personas can be considered nothing more than a valuable thought experiment, assisting product development teams in connecting among each other, more than really connecting to the final customer.
The main criticism against this approach revolves around the fact that Personas does not provide an actual link of causality between the Persona and the product.
The structure of the typical Persona story, is in fact structured as follows:
As A ____________(Persona)
I Want to ____________ (Action)
So That ______________(Expected Outcome).
So in practice, a typical User Story would play out as follows:
“As a 25-year-old guy called Jim, I want to drink something refreshing when I am thirsty, So That I don’t feel thirsty anymore.”
In the first two components of this reasoning are entirely based upon unproven assumptions, and again, this provides no real insight into consumer motivation.
So how we get out of this loophole? Intercom, a California-based Digital Company, successfully developed a way to use the ‘Story’ element but refurbishing it with the Jobs to Be Done Theory approach.
The Job Story foresees three motivation-oriented sentences:
When ________ (Situation)
I Want to________ (Motivation)
So I Can________ (Expected Outcome)
This how a Jobs Story plays out:
When I’ve got 2 minutes to stave off hunger between meetings, I want to grab something that will be quick, easy to eat and boost my blood sugar fast so that I can stave off hunger until dinner time. (Reference, Front 2016).
As in the example above, the personal features of a consumer do not matter as the reasoning and the link of causality between motivation and behaviour is based on the situation experienced by the customer. This approach, therefore, allows us to identify the real reasons that push a consumer to hire a particular type of food to get through his meetings.
So in a nutshell, as Prof. Clayton Christensen puts it:
“Personas are a collection of attributes and don’t explain causality”.
As a result, the Jobs Story approach, despite having been developed in the context of marketing research, found great application opportunities in the context of IT and software development.
Delving a little deeper in the JTBD theory, we’ll see what are the elements assisting us in creating Job Stories are. To this end, Alan Klement notoriously identified a simple 6 step guide to using JTBD:
1. First, start with defining a high-level job
2. Then identify a smaller job or jobs which can help resolve the higher level job
3. Observe how people solve their problem now
4. Interview people to understand their motivations for choosing their current solution
5. Come up with Job Stories, that investigate the motivations, causality and anxieties experienced by customers
6. Create a solution (usually in the form of a feature or UI change) which resolves the job story
In order to develop a Job Story, we will need to focus on customer interviews. The questions that revolve around the customer interview should look like this:
So the underlying element of a customer’s interview is making sure we understand the customer’s purchasing decisions.
Motivations: Why customers buy our products
Situations: Why customers switched from a previous product – this is especially insightful information
Anxieties: Whether customers are struggling with your product
The ReWired Group developed a tool to understand the customer’s buying behaviour in the context of JTBD. They suggested thinking of customers interviews in the form of a timeline so that their decision-making process can be understood chronologically.
This approach starts from the concept of the first thought, defined as the moment in which a consumer realises his\her dissatisfaction with a product they are using. The first thought moment is when customers decide to embark in a journey comprised of several stages (passive looking, actively looking, deciding, consuming, satisfaction) to find a substitute.
Another blueprint used by the ReWired Group, capable of focusing on a customer’s decision-making process is called the ‘Forces of Progress’ model.
According to this model, customers struggle between two opposing forces:
On the one hand, customers are pushed to adopt new products because of the problems experienced with the current solution (Push) and the benefits of the new solution (Pull).
At the same time, however, they are drawn to maintain their current (dissatisfactory) products because of Inertia, or existing habits. Other factors that lock-in customers are switching costs and Anxiety, or worries about switching to the new solution.
The challenge in applying these theories to digital marketing relies on the fact that it’s much harder to identify the first thought, aka the moment of dissatisfaction when conducting interviews. Customers don’t have a secure emotional attachment to software products as opposed to physical ones. Purchasing furniture (by comparison) makes a much more memorable experience, which you may be willing to talk about and remember for many years.
This problem makes the digital marketer’s job more complicated, as we are forced to collect evidence of our clients’ buying behaviour via reconstructing scattered sources in order to recreate the full picture of the consumer journey.
If you’d like to find out more about the application of the Jobs to Be Done Theory, here are some useful resources:
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